What is a movement disorder?
Movement disorder is defined as an abnormality in the form and velocity of movements of the body. These disorders are a group of nervous system (neurological) conditions that cause either increased movements or reduced or slow movements which may be voluntary or involuntary.
What are the common types of movement disorders?
|Movement disorder||Affected body part||Characteristics|
|Ataxia||Brain||Uncoordinated balance, speech, or limb movements. Degenerative disorders, infection, etc., may be the causes.|
|Dystonia||The entire body or any part||Sustained involuntary muscle contractions|
|Chorea||Face, mouth, trunk, and limbs||Repetitive, brief, irregular, rapid, involuntary movements|
|Cervical Dystonia||Neck||Sustained involuntary muscle contractions cause the head to pull to one side or to shake back and forth.|
|Functional movement disorder||Any movement disorder||Due to neurological disease and is treatable|
|Huntington’s disease||Genetic disorder||Uncontrolled movements, cognitive problems, and psychiatric conditions.|
|Parkinson’s disease||Muscle||A slowly progressive disease characterized by tremors, muscle stiffness, slow movement, imbalance, constipation, and the decline in cognition.|
|Parkinsonism||Muscle||Slow movement and stiffness due to Parkinson’s disease or dopamine-blocking medications, multiple system atrophy, stroke, or repeated traumatic brain injury|
|Multiple system atrophy||Brain systems, low B.P., impaired bladder function||An uncommon neurological disorder that causes ataxia or parkinsonism|
|Myoclonus||Muscle||Lightning quick jerks|
|Progressive supranuclear palsy||Eye||A rare neurological disorder that affects walking, balance, and eye movements.|
|Restless legs syndrome||Legs||Unpleasant sensation in legs while relaxing or lying down which is relieved during movement|
|Tardive dyskinesia||Eye||Due to the long-term use of neuroleptic drugs for psychiatric illnesses. Repetitive, involuntary movements such as eye blinking are characteristics.|
|Tourette syndrome||Repetitive movements and vocal sounds are generally seen in individuals of age groups between childhood and teens|
|Tremor||Hands, head or other body parts||Rhythmic shaking of body parts.|
|Wilson’s disease||Genetic disorder||Excess amounts of copper build up in the body, causing various kinds of neurological problems such as dystonia, tremor, parkinsonism, or ataxia.|
|Lewy body dementia||brain||Depletion of neurotransmitters such as dopamine (controls muscle movement) and acetylcholine (responsible for memory, thinking, and processing). The patient suffers from fluctuating alertness, visual hallucinations, and Parkinsons-like movement issues.|
|Blepharospasm||Eyelid||Uncontrollable spasms of both eyelids|
|Hemifacial spasm||Eyelid and lower face||Involuntary spasms of the eyelid and lower face on one side.|
What are the available treatments for these movement disorders?
|Ataxia of Parkinsonism||Use of oral L-Dopa. Other medications include Amantadine, selegiline, and entacapone.|
|Dystonia||Three-tiered approach – Botulinum toxin, medications, and surgery|
|Essential tremor||Beta-blockers in young patients, anti-seizure medications, benzodiazepines. In case of severe tremors, thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation are the surgical options.|
|Huntington’s disease||The treatment focus is on reducing symptoms and preventing complications with the help of antidepressants, tranquilizers, mood-stabilizers, and Botox injections.|
|Multiple system atrophy||L-Dopa and Dopamine agonists|
|Myoclonus||Barbiturates, phenytoin, primidone, sodium valproate, clonazepam|
|Parkinson’s disease||Dopamine agonists, anticholinergics, thalamotomy, deep brain stimulation|
|Wilson’s disease||Removing excess copper with the help of zinc acetate, trientine, and penicillamine. Lifelong treatment with refrainment of copper-rich foods such as organ meats, shellfish, fish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and chocolate.|
Since movement disorders are due to neurological disruption that involves motor dysfunction or motor abnormalities or neuro-muscular coordination problems. Many of these disorders take time (sometimes lifelong) to get cured or are sometimes difficult to cure as in genetic movement disorders.